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6000BCE

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§Of World Interest

The entire 6th Millennium was a part of the Holocene climatic optimum (so were the 4th, 5th, and 7th Millennia). This was a warm period also known as the Atlantic period. This period was characterized by minimal glaciation and high sea levels.

Steppe Wisent, a bison species inhabiting steppe from Asia to North America, disappears.

The Irish Elk becomes extinct, possibly due to changes in the ecosystem.

Linen was made from the flax plant around this time.

About this time, a volcano caused an avalanche in Sicily 8,000 years ago that crashed into the sea at 200 mph, triggering a devastating tsunami that spread across the entire Mediterranean Sea. There are no historical records of the event – only geological records – but scientists say the tsunami was taller than 10-story building.

§Africa

§Modern Niger

Tenerians colonized the region between 7000 BCE and 4500 BCE

§Asia

§China

Beginning of Neolithic Yangshao culture in south-central China <t.1500 BC>. Somewhere in this expanse of time, they invent the earliest pictographs of Chinese writing. (Atlas of China, 1983)

§Korea

The history of the Korean people can be traced to the Neolithic Age, when Turkic-Manchurian-Mongol peoples migrated into the region from China. It was around this period that the first agriculturally based settlements began to appear. Some of the larger communities of this era were established along the Han-gang River near modern-day Seoul, others near Pyongyang and Pusan.

§Balkans

Fully Neolithic agriculture has spread through Anatolia to the Balkans. (1967 McEvedy)

§Middle East

The Copper Age comes to the Fertile Crescent. (Roux 1980) First use of copper in Middle East. (Bailey 1973)

§Egypt

Rudimentary ships (rowed, single-sailed) were depicted in Egyptian rock art.

§Iran (formerly Persia)

6,000 BCE reveals a fairly sophisticated agricultural society and proto-urban population centers on the Iranian plateau. The south-western part of Iran was part of the Fertile Crescent where most of humanity's first major crops were grown.

§Iraq

By around 6000 BC people had moved into the foothills (piedmont) of northernmost Mesopotamia where there was enough rainfall to allow for "dry" agriculture in some places. These were the first farmers in northernmost Mesopotamia (the region known as Assyria). They made Hassuna style pottery (cream slip with reddish paint in linear designs). Hassuna people lived in small villages or hamlets ranging from 2 to 8 acres. Even the largest Hassuna sites were smaller than PPNA Jericho had been 1000 years before and much smaller than Çatal Hüyük, which was still occupied in Anatolia. Probably few if any Hassuna villages exceeded 500 people.

At Tell Hassuna, an ancient Mesopotamian town situated south of modern Mosul, adobe dwellings built around open central courts with fine painted pottery replace earlier levels with crude pottery. Hand axes, sickles, grinding stones, bins, baking ovens and numerous bones of domesticated animals reflect settled agricultural life. Female figurines have been related to worship and jar burials within which food was placed related to belief in afterlife. The relationship of Hassuna pottery to that of Jericho suggests that village culture was becoming widespread.

This was the high point of the culture at Jarmo, an archeological site located in Northern Iraq on the foothills of Zagros Mountains east of Kirkuk city (coordinates 35°34'N, 44°55'E).

Yarim Tepe is an archaeological site in the north of modern day Iraq which shows significant advancement of human culture from sites dated previous to 6000BCE. Discoveries illustrate the origins of human pottery with the presence of kilns which would more likely date to the second phase of occupation at this site around 5000BCE. However, food preparation and storage techniques would have been commonplace throughout the site’s occupation as is proved with the presence of saddle quern stones, stone pestles and later evidence of mud brick granaries. Metallurgy also took place at Yarim Tepe as is proved by the recovery of copper ore and copper beads and later with copper pendant seals, and also with the discovery of lead bracelets.

§Pakistan

The Mehrgarh culture reaches it height c. 6000 BC. The Mehrgarh site is one of the most important Neolithic sites in the world. It is located in present-day Pakistan (Baluchistan Province).

Mehrgarh, (Urdu: م‍ﮩ‍رگڑھ ) one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on what is now the "Kachi plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, and is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia."

Located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi, Mehrgarh was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BC–5500 BC.

§Syria

Ugarit

Ugarit's location was forgotten until 1928 when an Alawite peasant accidentally opened an old tomb while plowing a field. The discovered area was the Necropolis of Ugarit located in the nearby seaport of Minet el-Beida. Excavations have since revealed an important city that takes its place alongside Ur and Eridu as a cradle of urban culture, with a prehistory reaching back to ca. 6000 BCE, perhaps because it was both a port and at the entrance of the inland trade route to the Euphrates and Tigris lands. Entrance to the royal palace.

The excavations uncovered a royal palace of 90 rooms laid out around eight enclosed courtyards, many ambitious private dwellings, including two private libraries (one belonging to a diplomat named Rapanu) that contained diplomatic, legal, economic, administrative, scholastic, literary and religious texts. Crowning the hill where the city was built were two main temples: one to Baal the "king", son of El, and one to Dagon, the chthonic god of fertility and wheat.

§India

6000: Early sites on the Sarasvati River, then India's largest, flowing west of Delhi into the Rann of Kutch; Rajasthan is a fertile region with much grassland, as described in the Rig Veda. The culture, based upon barley (yava), copper (ayas)and cattle, also reflects that of the Rig Veda.

It has been claimed that the chicken was domesticated in India in 6000 BCE. Other evidence points to the first domestication in China in 5400 BCE. It is believed that the chicken was first domesticated as a sport, not as food, in the game of cock fighting.

§Near East

§Turkey

Discovery of pure copper in Anatolia, around 6000 BCE, copper metallurgy spread in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

§Europe

§Britain

DNA evidence shows that people in Britain were eating imported wheat about this time.

§France

The end of the paleolithic and beginning of the neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other easily-hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits, snails and wild sheep. In about 6000 BCE, the Castelnovian people, living around Chateauneuf-les-Martigues, were among the first people in Europe to domesticate wild sheep, and to cease moving constantly from place to place. Since they were settled in one place. they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the imported pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BCE they created the first pottery to be made in France.

Around 6000 B.C. a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasseens, arrived in Provence. They were farmers and warriors, and gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.

§Near East

The Indus Valley Tradition: Early food producing era.

§Ephesus

The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BCE), as was revealed by the excavations at the nearby hoyuk (artificial mounds known as tells) of Arvalya and Cukurici.

§North America

Equids disappear from the Americas. Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, which belong to the order Perissodactyla. It is sometimes known as the horse family. Apart from the horse, other extant equids include assorted subspecies of donkey or ass, and the zebras. All of these are in the genus Equus.

Nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples first populated the Colorado River basin about this time.

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

A burial from Bøgebakken at Vedbæk dates to ca. 6000 BC and contains 22 persons - including four newborns and one toddler. Eight of the 22 had died before reaching 20 years of age - testifying to the hardness of hunter-gatherer life in the cold north

The oldest extant bows, from the Holmegård region in Denmark, date to around 6,000 BCE.

§Norway

The red cave paintings in Alta, Norway date back as early as 6200 BCE. They accurately depicted hunting scenes including reindeer.

§South Pacific

Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from Taiwan that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages. It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago

§South America

§Modern Ecuador

Inga cultures in the region were among the first to begin farming.

§Sources

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Page last modified on June 09, 2017, at 10:25 PM