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8000BCE

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Over time, nomadic groups of foragers and hunters began to settle down. The pastoral society helped to further tie groups to specific areas of land. The raising of animals created strains on nomadic peoples to find large and reliable sources of food to feed their growing population of animals. Over several thousand years, this desire, combined with other factors led to what is known as the Neolithic Revolution or the Agricultural Revolution. Neolithic means "new stone", even though agriculture was the crowning achievement of the period. Civilizations started out small. Agriculture at first tended to tie only small groups together. These groups also all settled along rivers, important as a reliable and predictable source of water. As time passed, families usually worked the same plot of land over successive generations, leading to the concept of ownership.

As agriculture became more and more widespread, people began to accumulate surpluses of food, meaning that a single family grew more than it consumed. At the same time, the increasing tendency to remain in a single location put pressure on groups to protect themselves from other still nomadic peoples. In addition, when peoples stayed rooted near one another, cultural and social bonds began to form. People began to do things in similar ways (it is a property of human nature to want to belong). Because of these factors, especially a surplus of food, labor began to specialize and branch out away from just farming. When everyone did not have to farm all of the time to live, people began to become artisans and craftsmen. Such developments also brought trade, and a class of merchants. Merchants often traveled along the same routes. Also, within individual villages, artisans contributed to the homogenization of culture. Merchants caused further interaction and exchange, known as Cultural Diffusion. Human religion also began to evolve. Rising above the past nomadic "religions", cultures developed a unified polytheism within their ranks, which led them to further bond themselves together. Priests became a class as well. As you can see, specialization of labor was a direct offshoot of an agricultural surplus.

The new societies had one problem, however: now that the labor was specialized, agricultural surpluses had to happen every year without a break if the new culture was to remain intact. In stepped governments to fill the void. Government most likely began with religious leaders, such as priests, exercising control. The governments helped to organize agriculture so that food would be readily available year-round, every year, and distributed evenly. Governments also provided roads for their citizens and merchants. They further cemented the bonds between people within villages and regions, unifying culture to the point that it might be called a civilization. However, governments needed a way to pay the laborers who built and worked on their projects. Taxes thus first, perhaps unfortunately, appeared on the scene, usually in the form of a tax-in-kind (taking a portion of a product, such as grain from a farmer, the use of money was yet to appear). Suddenly, all the parts of an ancient civilization appeared. Governments soon fell into a type of system known as a monarchy, or rule by hereditary leaders (such as kings or princes). The reason for this was two-fold: monarchy came naturally because it was like the family, with the parents on top and the children beneath; eventually the parents grew old and the children became adults and parents in their own right and the cycle continued. Secondly, monarchy was predictable and reliable. In an age without mass communication or speedy travel, it was important for any void left by the death of a leader to be filled quickly, without fuss and strife. Most of the new governments were, however, small city-states, or independent countries composed of a city and some surrounding farmland. This was the beginnings of the world's oldest civilizations in Ancient Mesopotamia.

§Of World Interest

The estimated population of the World is 5 million people. Evidence of beer and wine production date to this period.

The Earth was about .5 degrees C warmer than 1990 temperature averages.

§Africa

the Nilo-Saharan speakers started to collect and domesticate wild millet and sorghum between 8000 and 6000 BCE

§Modern Niger

Kiffians colonized the region between 10000 BCE and 8000 BCE ?

§Asia

It is believed that the invention of the wheel occurred around this time in Asia. The oldest actual archaeological evidence of a wheels is from Mesopotamia dating from around 3500 BCE.

§Japan

This period marks the Initial Jomon culture and the earliest traces of humans in Japan. It is believed that there was a crossing from eastern Siberia to the northern island of Hokkaido in this period. Global warming, begun 2000 years previously had raised sea levels so that parts of the Japanese coastline became separated and made islands of what are now Shikoku and Kyushu. The warmer weather also brought an increase in food supplies in the way of seeds, fruit and animals. The use of stone tools such as grinding rocks, knives, and axes was characteristic of this period.

§Taiwan

The evidence indicates that the ancestors of the Austronesian peoples spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages.

§Europe

§Cyprus

The earliest known villages are dated to around 8200 BCE. Before that, there were hunter gatherers dating as far back as 10,000 BCE.

§England

Large Mesolithic postholes which date to around 8000 BC were discovered beneath the modern tourist car-park at Stonehenge. These held pine posts around 0.75 m (2.4ft) in diameter which were erected and left to rot in situ. Three of the posts (and possibly four) were in an east-west alignment and may have had ritual significance; no parallels are known from Britain at the time but similar sites have been found in Scandinavia. At this time, Salisbury Plain was still wooded but four thousand years later, during the earlier Neolithic, a cursus monument was built 600 m north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the forest and exploit the area. Several other early Neolithic sites, a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball and long barrow tombs were built in the surrounding landscape.

§Estonia

c. 8000 BCE —Estonia—Pulli settlement inhabited

§Ireland

The first known human settlement in Ireland began around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge.

§Netherlands

The area was inhabited by various paleolithic groups.

It is known that around 8000 BCE a Mesolithic tribe resided near Burgumer Mar (Friesland). Another group residing elsewhere is known to have made canoes. The oldest recovered canoe in the world is the Pesse canoe. According to C14 dating analysis it was constructed somewhere between 8200 BCE and 7600 BCE ?. This canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen.

§Middle East

§Egypt

Migration of peoples to the Nile, developing a more centralized society and settled agricultural economy

§Fertile Crescent

The switch from mobile hunting and gathering to the sedentary lifestyle of farming first occurred about 10,000 years ago in south-western Asia. After the last Ice Age, this new way of life spread rapidly across Eurasia, in one of the most important behavioural transitions in human history.

During the period 8000–3700 BC, the Fertile Crescent witnessed the spread of small settlements supported by agricultural surplus. Geometric tokens emerged to be used to manage stewardship of this surplus. The earliest tokens now known are those from two sites in the Zagros region of Iran: Tepe Asiab and Ganj-i-Dareh Tepe

Domestication of pigs – The domestication of pigs is one of the great illustrations as to why history can be such a wide reaching subject. What is the domestication history of pigs? Well quite honestly, it is not completely understood. Theories and speculations can be reached by any individual who chooses to scientifically research, or even study scientific research of this subject. Suggestions can be reached by anyone who has freedom of thought. It is an incomplete jigsaw puzzle with various pieces of discovery.

Evidence suggests that the earliest origins of pig domestication occurred similarly to that of goats and sheep, within the Fertile Crescent (see 10kyr in the Quarternary Period) and dated around 10,000 – 9000 years ago, however some evidence suggests that this could have been a few thousand years earlier.

The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is an adaptation of wild boars, but question marks still exist regarding which particular wild boars were the direct ancestors of the earliest domesticated pigs. Evidence suggests that the wild boar of the Middle East, and also the wild boar of Europe were involved. However, were domesticated wild boars of the Middle East transported to Europe with the migration of modern humans? Were wild boars domesticated in Europe and transported back to the Middle East, and if so what happened to the domesticated wild boars that were already in the Middle East? Did the lineage involve interbreeding of both wild varieties? All of these questions in a relation to one another have yet to establish a conclusive accepted theory regarding this topic. Hundreds of domestic breeds exist in today's world.

§Iraq

In the north of Iraq near the city of Tal Afar in the Ninawa Governorate exists a key archaeological site called Qermez Dere. The site has contributed to the debate on the emergence of human civilisation in the Fertile Crescent. Two separate stages of occupation are attributed to the site, however it is firmly believed that there was definite occupation around 8000 BCE. Speculation about domesticated crops and whether they were transported or not, and whether it is evidence of a human transition from a subsistence lifestyle to an organised agricultural lifestyle, is a source of debate.

§Israel

The Natufian culture which started c. 10500 BCE gave way to the Yarmukians about this time. Their culture lasted until about 4300 BCE.)

§Mesopotamia

Clay tokens had been used for some form of record-keeping in Mesopotamia since perhaps as early as c. 8,000 BC, according to some estimates

§Southern Mesopotamia

Temple building at Göbekli Tepe ceased. It had begin several thousand years before and gradually the people got worse at temple building, until they finally stopped about this time.

§Near East

§Turkey

Milk fats were discovered in pottery pieces from Turkey from this period suggesting the processing of dairy products.

§North America

The North American climate finally stabilized by 8000 BCE; climatic conditions were very similar to today's. This led to widespread migration, cultivation of crops, and subsequently a dramatic rise in population all over the Americas.

The Na-Dené people entered North America starting around 8000 BCE, reaching the Pacific Northwest by 5000 BCE, and from there migrating along the Pacific Coast and into the interior.

§Southwest

Rise of the Desert Archaic Culture, which from 8,000 to 2,000 years ago constituted most of the Colorado River Basin's human population.

Clovis material, associated with peoples in the Clovis, New Mexico area were carbon dated to 9100 to 8850 BCE.

Recent archaeological studies show there was a seafaring culture in Southern California in 8,000 BCE.

§Mexico

The Oaxaca region of Mexico, semi-arid in the 21st century was a wetter grassland with horses evidence suggests.

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

Around 8300 BC the temperature rose drastically, now with summer temperatures around 15 degrees, and the landscape changed into dense forests of aspen, birch and pine and the reindeer moved north, while aurochs and elk arrived from the south.

The oldest known bog body is the skeleton of Koelbjerg Woman from Denmark, who has been dated to 8000 BCE

§Norway

c. 8000 BC—Norway - Øvre Eiker of Norway inhabited

§South Pacific

§New Guinea

The people of New Guinea were probably the first to domesticate sugarcane, sometime around 8,000 BCE.

§Sources

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