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§Modern Niger

Kiffians colonized the region between 10000 BCE and 8000 BCE ?

§Eastern Sahara

The Eastern Sahara covers a region, the size of Western Europe and includes areas within Egypt, Sudan, Libya and Chad. Prior to this time the Sahara was desert, as we know it today. But, drastic climatic changes occurred about 8,500 BCE that brought monsoons, and with it, grasslands, animals and the hunter gatherers that followed them into this area. This condition continued until about 4000 BCE when conditions reverted to their previous desert condition. As the region become arid, humans migrated out and into other parts of Africa.



c. 8500 BC—Great Britain—Mesolithic hunters camp at Cramond, Prehistoric Scotland


-8500: Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism at winter solstice, suggesting the antiquity of this Veda.

§Middle East

§Fertile Crescent

Domestication of cattle – The study of the original domestication of cattle seems to be one of the more successful of studies into the earlier domestications of an animal. One particular animal which has a significant role in this subject, as well as being the subject of many instances of cave art is the auroch, an animal that does not exist in today’s world, becoming extinct in the 17th century. Study has led scientists to believe that the auroch is a definite ancestor of the domestic cattle and of the wild cattle that would have contributed to the domestic cattle genome. A date of 10,500 years ago has been applied by a number of sources as a general date for approximation of this event, although it is certainly believed that more than one independent domestication event happened within the vast Fertile Crescent. There were two types of cattle which existed and were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent, the humped variety or zebu (Bos primigenius indicus) and the cattle without a hump (Bos primigenius Taurus) both now thought to be descendants from the auroch. There are now understood to be over 800 breeds of cattle.


The archaeological site of Ganj Dareh in the northwest of modern day Iran contains remains of goats which point towards human domestication of this animal. Generally scientists will attempt to establish whether animals existed in a domesticated condition at a Neolithic period archaeological site by its anatomical structure and DNA, but these factors at Ganj Dareh are in dispute. However, the presence of younger male goats and older female goats in a typical trend of a population that is in a post pastorilization condition. It is likely that the goats were domesticated but had not yet developed into a manipulated domesticated breed.


Domestication of barley – Some of the earliest modern day countries where it is suspected that barley was first domesticated are Israel, Palestine and Syria. Barley, like wheat which was probably domesticated around the same time or before, is a grass crop. Dates of around 8500BCE have been tentatively applied to the mainstream domestication which was believed to have spread east over the next couple of thousand years firstly throughout the Fertile Crescent modern day countries such as Iraq, and then onwards towards the Indus Valley through modern day Iran, Pakistan and Turkmenistan and so most likely Afghanistan. The less brittle wild varieties were selectively cultivated into the domesticated variety (Hordeum vulgare) and it is still one of the most highly produced cereals used today. It is still used in cookery today and in a number of health foods. It can be malted for more widespread use in the food and drink industry.


c. 8500 BC–7370 BC; Jericho established with 2,000 inhabitants living in mud-brick houses covering 6 acres (24,000 m2) and protected by the Wall of Jericho

8850 BCE - radiocarbon date for communities in Palestine. they did not domesticate animals but had their economy based on gazelle-hunting, used flit-bladed repaing knives or straight sickles for cutting some crop, likely to have been wild or cultivated cereal.

These Natufian people lived in cave shelters or in open settlements of circular or oval houses measuring about 25 feet in diameter. The houses were covered in red-painted plaster.


Nevalı Çori is an archaeological site of extraordinary importance in the study of Neolithic life and alongside geographically and historically close archaeological sites such as Göbekli Tepe and Çayönü, it has opened fierce debate relating to the chronological order of events of the Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution. There are a number of individually studied human developments within this Revolution which create debate over their chronological order. Those developments being the cultivation and domestication of wild plant life such as wheat and barley, the pastoralization of wild animals and the progression from nomadic life to settlement. More key to the human development, the role of individuals in their own societies. How much more emphasis on their societies did leaders have? To what extent did these influences have, such as task allocation to individuals for benefit of their group? What methods did these leaders use too convey their superiority over their subjects? The answers to these questions would really piece together the general view of where civilised societies generated their ideals from, which forms of practice were the precursor to each other and how the story of the Neolithic Revolution should be read. The gravity of this in terms of human history for those that study the subject can be nothing short of life consuming. There are so many critical questions with no conclusive answer, and the discovery of Nevalı Çori and its sister sites, simply fuels the debate. Atatürk Dam was constructed from 1983. Over the course of the next eight years archaeologists were keen to learn more about the Nevalı Çori site which was in part prevented and destructed by the construction of the dam.

§North America


Clovis material, associated with peoples in the Clovis, New Mexico area were carbon dated to 9100 to 8850 BCE.


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