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<< 9500 BCE | 10000-5000 BCE | 8700 BCE >>


§Modern Niger

Kiffians colonized the region between 10000 BCE and 8000 BCE ?


Archaeological research, pioneered by Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, has shown that people were already living in southwestern Nigeria (specifically Iwo-Eleru) as early as 9000 BCE and perhaps earlier at Ugwuelle-Uturu (Okigwe) in southeastern Nigeria, where microliths were used.


Cave paintings said to date back as far as 9000 BCE have been found in northern Somalia

§Central America

Maize, the forerunner to modern corn, split off from teosinte grass, differing by only a small number of genes.


  • c. 9000 BC—Mediterranean - Settling on Mediterranean isles started
  • c. 9000 BC—Laacher See, northwest of Frankfurt, formed when a volcano blows out to form a caldera
  • c. 9000 BC—Neolithic culture begins in Ancient Near East
  • c. 9000 BC: Gὃbekli Tepe - Carved stone hilltop sanctuary in southeastern Turkey
  • c. 9000: Old Europe, Anatolia and Minoan Crete display a Goddess-centered culture reflecting a matriarchial order.
  • People first settled in the boggy area of what is now Lithuania.

§Middle East

c. 9000 BC—Discovery of copper in Middle East

§Fertile Crescent

Domestication of goats – The pastoralization or domestication of goats is quite possibly closely linked to the domestication of the goat’s subfamily cousin the sheep, in that they were both most likely first domesticated in various locations within the area known as the Fertile Crescent, and the era in which both were most likely domesticated, which was around 11,000 years ago. While it is incredibly difficult to establish the exact location of the origins of goat domestication, it is feasible to assume that the Fertile Crescent (see 10Kyr in the Quarternary Period) was the region in which this happened. While some sources cite the Euphrates Valley in modern day Turkey, and others the Zagros Mountains of modern day Iran, it is believed that domesticated goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) existed throughout the Fertile Crescent by 7500BCE. The domestication of goats provided humans with many of the expected resources from such a development, production of meat and milk, hide and hair, and sinew, which are the tendons and ligaments which connect the muscle to the bone. The bone itself would have been used for hardware purposes. One of the more interesting products would have been dung, which is speculated to have been used as a symbolic decoration of caves for migrating populations, either as something to claim rights to a seasonal dwelling, or as a decorative testament to lost relatives or companions. As is common with domesticated animals, human interference has created a number of breeds. Distinct goat breeds in the modern world are believed to exceed 300.


Signs of early agriculture date back as far as 9000 BCE to the foothils of the Zagros Mountains, in cities later named Anshan and Susa . Two archaeological sites include: Jarmo and Shanidar, where skeletal remains of Neanderthals have been found. There are also 9,000 year old human and animal figurines from Teppe Sarab in Kermanshah Province among the many other ancient artifacts.


c. 9000 BC—The first evidence of the keeping of sheep, in northern Iraq

Nemrik 9 – Archaeological excavations of a number of buildings within an area named Nemrik 9 in Dohuk Governorate in the north of modern day Iraq, have uncovered a plethora of artefacts and remains that offer a doorway into Neolithic life in this area of the world. Scientists have theories that are ever changing and ever contradictory of each other regarding the most likely chronological order of events during the Neolithic, such as the development of the feeling of community within a group of people, the development of building construction techniques, the development of food preparation techniques, the development of art and more specifically, mobile art such as jewellery and figurines and the domestication of flora and fauna. Nemrik most notably shows little evidence of true domestication, for example the animal bones found at the site are of a wide variety of wild animals, most species of which never experienced domestication. On the flip side, certain preparation materials including pestles, mortars and quern-stones show that the peoples of this site had a good awareness of how to prepare their food and as such had developed tools that were affective in achieving this. These facts suggest that society would have been in a fairly developed, settled and communal state before animal and even plant domestication were considered as serious necessities.


Relating to the Neolithic (Aggricultural) Revolution, evidence of permanent human settlement and domestication of cereals and pulses.

§Modern Syria

Tell Aswad in southern Syria has been dated to about 9300 BCE. The first PPNB period involved construction of massive earth architecture[disambiguation needed], layering soil with reeds to construct walls. The inhabitants of Tell Aswad invented the brick on site by modelling earth clods with beds of reeds, which they then formed into raw bricks and eventually dried in later stages. Houses were round from beginning to the end of the settlement, elliptical or polygonal and were partly buried or laid. The orientation of the openings is most often to the East. This conforms with sites in the Southern Levant, whereas Northern Euphrates Valley sites generally display rectangular houses

Damascus is often claimed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, and evidence of settlement in the wider Barada basin dating back to 9000 BC exists. However within the area of Damascus there is no evidence for large-scale settlement until the second millennium BCE.

Evidence of lentil cultivation in around 9000 BCE in modern day Syria has been found through archaeological excavations. The lentil is believed to be one of the first domesticated plants for human consumption alongside wheat and barley. It is a pulse from the legume family which is cultivated for its beans. It is believed that lentil beans were consumed by humans sometime beforehand and large scale storage is believed to have existed in modern day Israel as far back as 7000 BCE.

During construction of the Tishrin Dam in the far north of Syria between 1991 and 1995, a prepottery Neolithic site of archaeological interest was discovered called Jerf el Ahmar. In brief, there was evidence of human settlement in the form of built walls which are suggested to have been both residential and communial room walls. There are human bones at the site as well as quern-stones. Quern-stones are stones that are specifically used for the grinding of materials. The quern-stones at Jerf al Ahmar are believed to have been used to grind wild barley. It is significant that this has been detailed as wild barley because at some point during the Neolithic, humankind domesticated barley and in most cases of animal and plant domestication the species is notably altered from a wild form to a recognised domesticated form.

§Modern Turkey

Göbekli Tepe was built around 11000 years ago as a hill top retreat and is recognized as the oldest place of worship yet found on Earth. It is located in what is now South East Turkey.


The city of Jericho dates to about this time. Traces of habitation from 9000 BC. Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was destroyed and abandoned several times (sometimes remaining uninhabited for hundreds of years at a time), with later rebuilding and expansion

§North America


Clovis material, associated with peoples in the Clovis, New Mexico area were carbon dated to 9100 to 8850 BCE.

§South America


The southern tip on South America is colonised by around 9000BCE

§South Pacific Islands

It was about this time that global warming, the end of the last ice age, caused flooding of the Asian land mass known as Sundaland, and extension of Asia extending out to Borneo and Java. It was probably because of this flooding that populations began migrating into regions such as modern Taiwan from the regions now known as the Pacific Islands based on genetic test.


11,100 BP (Bond event 8) — coincides with the transition from the Younger Dryas to the boreal


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